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  • Is Turkey Rich in Water?
  • Management of Water Resources in Turkey
  • Water as a Human Right
  • Turkey's Transboundary Waters Policy
  • Water in Turkey-EU Relations
  • * Conceptions

    * Doctrines

    * Conventions

    ORSAM Water Research Programme made an interview with ICID Vice President Hüseyin Gündoğdu on ICID, its importance.
    ORSAM Water Research Programme made an interview with Anna Bachmann, who is a program manager in Nature Iraq, about the studies of Nature Iraq and water issue in Iraq.
    During the 6th World Water Forum held in Marseille, ORSAM Water Research Program specialist Dr. Tuğba Evrim Maden made an interview with Assist. Prof. Dr. Aysun Uyar..
    Gökçekuş elaborated onTRNC’s water resources and the process of “TRNC Drinking Water Supply Project” which is an important project as a solution for TRNC's drinking water problem.
    “What we see is that we need to develop a much better understanding of the role of water in energy production so that water will not be a constrained to energy production” said Jakob Granit.
    Demirer said that Turkey's brackish water potential might be an alternative resource.
    Prof. Dr. Cumali Kınacı, Director General of Water Management of the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs stated that they aim at establishing a national policy by trying to gather many institutions and organizations in a more productive way.
    Dr. Betül Al-Mossavi indicated that the federal government structure could lead to new problems in terms of the management of water resources in Iraq in the future.
    Problems of water in all countries (such as Turkey) are almost similar. Water shortage, increasing demand for drinking and irrigation water, and the fact that many regions are going through problems related to drinking water can be counted as some of the water problems.
    UNDP Global Programme Manager Assoc. Prof. Boğaçhan Benli, made assessments about the the efficient usage of water.
    Dr. Gülay Yaşın, GIZ Turkey Director indicated that wetlands should be preserved in a better way in order to protect the ecosystem and water resources, in the fight against climate change.
    Arzu Özyol, CEO at HYDRA, elaborated on the relation between “water and development”, and the ongoing works, which have been carried out in axis of women all around the world and in Turkey.
    Prof. Dr. H. Gonca Coşkun from ITU Faculty of Civil Engineering, Geomatics Engineering Department answered the questions of ORSAM Water Research Programme.
    Prof. Ayşegül Tanık told about the development of the integrated water resources management in Turkey, its perception, and its development with the EU Water Framework Directive.
    ORSAM Water Research Program carried out an interview with United Nations Joint Program Director Atila Uras and United Nations Joint Program Regional Project Coordinator Alper Acar.
    Akif Özkaldı, Deputy Director General of State Hydraulic Works (DSİ), mentioned that the 2nd İstanbul International Water Forum would consolidate the positive image about Turkey.
    Hydropolitics specialist Dursun Yıldız, underlined the fact that Turkey ever used her transboundary waters for peaceful and cooperative objectives.
    DSI Coordinator Hamza Özgüler: "Istanbul Water Forum is one of the most significant formations on the domain of water in Turkey and the region."
    Prof. Dr. Şahinöz: “The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) can supply enough food to the whole Middle East region, Also the region enriches the farmers of the GAP”



    Georgia

    Surface Area
    6 970 000 ha
    Cultivated Area
    1 066 000 ha
    Cultivated Area %
    15.3
    Population
    4 260 333
    Average Annual Precipitation
    1 026 mm/year
    Average Annual Volume of Precipitation
    74.23 billion m3/year
    Renewable Surface Water
    62.1 billion m3/year
    Renewable Groundwater
    17.23 billion m3/year
    Total Renewable Water (natural)
    79.33 billion m3/year
    Total Renewable Water (actual)
    82.48 billion m3/year

     
    Locating in the Caucasus region Georgia has a total area of 69 700 km2. Mountains cover about 54 percent, highlands about 33 percent, and valleys some 13 percent of the total area of the country. According to the data for 2005, cultivated area is about 1.07 million hectares. Average annual precipitation is 1 026 mm in Georgia who is divided into two climatic regions. West Georgia has a humid climate with mild winters and not very hot summers. The average precipitation is estimated at between 1 100 and 1 700 mm/year. Drainage of excess water from irrigation is one of the main problems in this part of the country. East Georgia, has a dry climate with fairly cold winters and arid, hot summers. The average precipitation varies between 500 and 1 100 mm/year. (1)
     
    Total population of the country is 4.47 million of which 48.5 percent live in rural area. According to 2006 data, 93 percent of the population has access to improved sanitation. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Georgia was US$ 10.7 billion of which agriculture accounted for 11 percent in 2007. (2)
     
    Georgia has 25 075 rivers with a total length of 54 768 km; 99.4 percent of them are small rivers with lengths less than 20 km. In line with hydrological studies, Georgia can be divided into two main river basin groups: The Black Sea Basin and The Caspian Sea Basin. Inguri, Rioni, and Çoruh which originates in Turkey and have an estimated annual flow of 6.3 billion m3 are located in Black Sea Basin. On the other hand, Caspian Sea Basin includes the Terek and the Andiyskoye, which rise in the north of the country and flow northeast to the Russian Federation before entering the Caspian Sea; the Alazani, the Iori and the Kura, which rise in Georgia and flow into Azerbaijan in Lake Adzhinour, before flowing southeast in Azerbaijan and then entering the Caspian Sea. Moreover, two tributaries of the Kura River rise in Turkey, the Mtkvari and the Potskhovi, and the inflow of the Debet River from Armenia, a southern tributary of the Kura River also located in the Caspian Sea Basin. There are about 43 dams in Georgia, which have a total reservoir capacity estimated at about 3.4 billion cubic meters. The largest dam is the Inguri dam with a reservoir capacity of 1.092 billion m3 in Georgia where the water is primarily used for irrigation and hydropower generation. Hydropower supplied 89 percent of electricity in the country. 31 dams which have a total reservoir capacity of 1 billion m³ have been built for irrigation purposes. The three largest irrigation reservoirs are the Sioni reservoir on the Iori River with 325 million m3 capacity, the Tbilisi reservoir on the Kura River with 308 million m3 and the Dalimta reservoir on the Iori River with 180 million m3. In 2005, the total treated wastewater was estimated at 9 million m3 in Georgia in which there is no tradition of treated wastewater reuse. (3)
     
    Between 1985 and 1990, the total water withdrawal decreased from 4 600 to 3 500 million m3 because of the industrial decline since the end of the Soviet Union. During 2005 the total water withdrawal was 1.621 billion m3. While agricultural water withdrawal accounted for 1 055 million m3, water withdrawal for municipal purposes estimated at 358 million m3 and industrial water withdrawal at 208 million m3. (4)
     
    In Georgia, the main institutions involved in water resources management are The Ministry of Food and Agriculture with the Department of Melioration and Water Resources which is responsible for planning, monitoring, and promoting irrigated agriculture. This department defines the water requirements for irrigation and supervises the management of the irrigation schemes. The Hydraulic Design Institute which is located under same ministry is responsible for irrigation, drainage, flood control, land reclamation, hydroelectric and water supply schemes design. Another institution is the Georgian Scientific Research Institute of Water Management and Engineering Ecology which is responsible for research into all issues related to water. Besides, The Ministry of Environment Protection and Natural Resources with the Centre for Monitoring and Prognostication is responsible for the assessment of surface water quantity, including the Black Sea, as well as groundwater. During the Soviet period, many administrative units were involved in the management of the same irrigation scheme, on the other hand, in the mean time every scheme is directly managed by one of the 48 administrative units of the Department of Melioration and Water Resources. (5)
     
    According to the presidential decree in 1997, the main irrigation infrastructure remains in the hands of the State, while the inter-farm distribution included in the privatization programme. It is stated that there should be an increase in state investment in irrigation, soil protection, research, selection, breeding information and plant protection services, development of environmental protection for rural infrastructure.
     
    There are more than 10 major laws in Georgia that have significant influence on the protection and management of water resources and associated environmental concerns. The most comprehensive is the Law on Water, which has been in force since 1997 and was last amended in 2000. The Law on Water outlines a number of principles that comprise a general framework about environmental protection and water protection in view of both current and future needs. Some of these principles are: drinking water for the population is the highest priority of all uses; both groundwater and surface water are under state control; management of water varies according to hydrologic importance; a system of “user-polluter pays” is key. Moreover, the Georgian government has prepared the national programme of harmonization of Georgian legislation with EU Water Framework Directive. (6)
     
    In 1925, an agreement with Turkey was reached on the use of water from the Çoruh River, allocating half of the average surface water flow to each country. This agreement dealt only with water flow and did not consider the sediment flow, estimated at 5 million m3/year. These sediments is of prime importance to maintain the coastline in Batumi, Georgia. Turkey will affect the sediment flow by constructing dams on the Çoruh River. In 1997, Georgia ratified an agreement with Azerbaijan on environmental protection. In 1998, Georgia ratified a similar agreement with Armenia. According to both agreements, the governments will cooperate in protection of the transboundary ecosystems. Under the implementation of the “Ecoregional Nature Protection Programme for Southern Caucasus” which is a part of the Caucasus Initiative, launched by the German Ministry of Cooperation and Development, three Caucasus countries, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia have been covered in the programme. From 2000 to 2002 South Caucasus Water Management Project which was designed to strengthen co-operation between water-related agencies at all local, national and regional levels, and demonstrated integrated water resources management was implemented in collaboration with USAID. Between 2000 and 2006, the EU and the Technical Assistance Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS) have developed the Joint River Management Programme on Monitoring and Assessment of Water Quality on Transboundary Rivers in order to provide prevention, control and reduction of trans-boundary pollution impact. The programme covers four basins, including the Kura River Basin. (7)
     
    Caucasus-Georgia Strategic Plan which is implemented by the USAID between 2004 and 2008 was designed to ensure continued support for the South Caucasus Regional Water Management Programme as a principal component of its regional conflict-prevention and confidence-building objectives. From 2002 to 2007, the NATO-OECD has developed the South Caucasus River Monitoring Project. This project aims to establish the social and technical infrastructure for an international, cooperative, transboundary river water quality and quantity monitoring, data sharing and watershed management system. Countries participating in this project are Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. (8)
     
    The project “Reducing Transboundary Degradation” in the Kura-Aras River Basin which is implemented by the UNDP in collaboration with GEF and supported by Sweden has been realized. This project involved four of the basin countries; Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Iran, and aims to ensure the regional cooperation that will monitör quality and quantity of water throughout the Kura-Aras River Basin. (9)

     
     
    References
    (2) FAO, Irrigation in the Middle East region in figures; Aquastat Survey-2008, FAO Water Reports 24, Roma, 2008, p.173.
     
    (3) op.cit., p.176.

    (4) FAO AQUASTAT, Fact Sheets, http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/
    data/factsheets/aquastat_fact_sheet_geo_en.pdf

    (5) FAO, 2008, p.181.

    (6) op.cit., pp.182-183.

    (7) op.cit., p.177.

    (8) op.cit., p.178.

    (9) op.cit., p.178.
     

     



    06 October -12 October 2014 (Issue 201)
    ORSAM Report No: 154
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 19
    May2013
    Transboundary Waters Within the Scope of EU Water Framework Directive
    (Tr)
    ORSAM Report No: 145
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 18
    January 2013
    Orsam Water Interviews 2012
    (Tr - Eng)
    ORSAM Report No: 144
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 17
    January 2013
    Orsam Water Interviews 2011
    (Tr - Eng)
    ORSAM Report No: 126
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 16
    July 2012
    Towards the New Water Framework Directive: Notes on Water Draft Law
    (Tr)
    ORSAM Report No: 122
     ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 15

    WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN IRAQ
    (Tr-Eng)
     
    ORSAM Report No: 116
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 14
    April 2012
    The Concept of “Benefit-Sharing”, Its Theoretical
    Background and Practical Reflections

    (Tr - Eng)
    ORSAM Report No :110
    ORSAM Water Research Programme No:13

    WATER RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT IN IRAN


    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Report No: 104
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 12

    AN EVALUATION ON THE DRAFT ARTICLES
    ON THE LAW OF TRANSBOUNDARY AQUIFERS


    (Turkish - English)
    ORSAM Rapor No: 101
    ORSAM Su Araştırmaları Programı Rapor No: 11


    EMNİYETLİ İÇME SUYU VE SANİTASYON HAKKI

    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 10

    TURKEY AND WFD HARMONIZATION: A SILENT, BUT SIGNIFICANT PROCESS


    (ENG)
    ORSAM Report No 84
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 9:

    SOMALIA’S CATASTROPHIC FAMINE: POLITICAL
    DROUGHT OR NATURAL ONE?


    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Rapor No: 78
    ORSAM Su Araştırmaları Programı Rapor No: 8

    TÜRKİYE’DE VE İSRAİL’DE YAPAY SULAK ALANLAR İLE ATIKSU ARITIMI VE ATIKSUYUN SULAMA AMAÇLI OLARAK TEKRAR KULLANIMI


    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Report No 63
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 7:

    THE INVISIBLE STRATEGIC RESOURCE: TRANSBOUNDARY GROUND WATERS


    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Report No 60
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 6:

    COOPERATION AND CONFLICT ON THE MEKONG RIVER WATERS


    (Turkish-ENG)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 5 :

    TURKEY-SYRIA RELATIONS: ASİ (ORONTES) FRIENDSHIP DAM AS AN EXAMPLE OF COOPERATION IN TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS


    (Turkish)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 4 :

    THE OBLIGATION OF “INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION” IN MERİÇ (MARITZA-EVROS) BASIN WATER MANAGEMENT


    (Turkish)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report : 3

    HYDROPOLITICAL HISTORY OF NILE RIVER BASIN AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    (Turkish)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report : 2

    CLIMATE CHANGE FROM A SECURITY PERSPECTIVE AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE MIDDLE EAST

    ( Turkish)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report 1:

    EU’S WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION IN TURKEY: THE DRAFT NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

    ( ENG )

    Syria
    Iraq
    Georgia
    Bulgaria
    Iran
    Armenia
    Greece
    Azerbaijan
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