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  • Is Turkey Rich in Water?
  • Management of Water Resources in Turkey
  • Water as a Human Right
  • Turkey's Transboundary Waters Policy
  • Water in Turkey-EU Relations
  • * Conceptions

    * Doctrines

    * Conventions

    ORSAM Water Research Programme made an interview with ICID Vice President Hüseyin Gündoğdu on ICID, its importance.
    ORSAM Water Research Programme made an interview with Anna Bachmann, who is a program manager in Nature Iraq, about the studies of Nature Iraq and water issue in Iraq.
    During the 6th World Water Forum held in Marseille, ORSAM Water Research Program specialist Dr. Tuğba Evrim Maden made an interview with Assist. Prof. Dr. Aysun Uyar..
    Gökçekuş elaborated onTRNC’s water resources and the process of “TRNC Drinking Water Supply Project” which is an important project as a solution for TRNC's drinking water problem.
    “What we see is that we need to develop a much better understanding of the role of water in energy production so that water will not be a constrained to energy production” said Jakob Granit.
    Demirer said that Turkey's brackish water potential might be an alternative resource.
    Prof. Dr. Cumali Kınacı, Director General of Water Management of the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs stated that they aim at establishing a national policy by trying to gather many institutions and organizations in a more productive way.
    Dr. Betül Al-Mossavi indicated that the federal government structure could lead to new problems in terms of the management of water resources in Iraq in the future.
    Problems of water in all countries (such as Turkey) are almost similar. Water shortage, increasing demand for drinking and irrigation water, and the fact that many regions are going through problems related to drinking water can be counted as some of the water problems.
    UNDP Global Programme Manager Assoc. Prof. Boğaçhan Benli, made assessments about the the efficient usage of water.
    Dr. Gülay Yaşın, GIZ Turkey Director indicated that wetlands should be preserved in a better way in order to protect the ecosystem and water resources, in the fight against climate change.
    Arzu Özyol, CEO at HYDRA, elaborated on the relation between “water and development”, and the ongoing works, which have been carried out in axis of women all around the world and in Turkey.
    Prof. Dr. H. Gonca Coşkun from ITU Faculty of Civil Engineering, Geomatics Engineering Department answered the questions of ORSAM Water Research Programme.
    Prof. Ayşegül Tanık told about the development of the integrated water resources management in Turkey, its perception, and its development with the EU Water Framework Directive.
    ORSAM Water Research Program carried out an interview with United Nations Joint Program Director Atila Uras and United Nations Joint Program Regional Project Coordinator Alper Acar.
    Akif Özkaldı, Deputy Director General of State Hydraulic Works (DSİ), mentioned that the 2nd İstanbul International Water Forum would consolidate the positive image about Turkey.
    Hydropolitics specialist Dursun Yıldız, underlined the fact that Turkey ever used her transboundary waters for peaceful and cooperative objectives.
    DSI Coordinator Hamza Özgüler: "Istanbul Water Forum is one of the most significant formations on the domain of water in Turkey and the region."
    Prof. Dr. Şahinöz: “The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) can supply enough food to the whole Middle East region, Also the region enriches the farmers of the GAP”



    Armenia

    Surface Area
    2 980 000 ha
    Cultivated Area
    555 000 ha
    Cultivated Area %
    18.6
    Population
    3 016 000
    Average Annual Precipitation
    592 mm/year
    Average Annual Volume of Precipitation
    16.71 billion m3/year
    Renewable Surface Water
    4.858 billion m3/year
    Renewable Groundwater
    4.311 billion m3/year
    Total Renewable Water (natural)
    9.169 billion m3/year
    Total Renewable Water (actual)
    9.169 billion m3/year

     
    Locating in the Caucasus region, Armenia has a total area of 29 800 km2. Armenia is a mountainous country, with 77 percent of its territory located at 1 000 to 2 500 m above sea level. Influenced by the topographical structure, most of the agricultural area lies within an altitude range of 600–2 500 m. The cultivable area is estimated at almost 1.4 million ha, which is 47 percent of the total area of the country. The cultivated area is estimated at 555 000 ha. (1)
     
    Having a highland continental climate with hot summers and cold winters, Armenia has an average annual precipitation of 592 mm. The driest regions are the Ararat Valley and the Meghri region, where the annual precipitation is 200–250 mm. The maximum precipitation is observed in high mountainous areas with more than 1 000 mm/year. (2)
     
    The total population is approximately 3 million, of which about 36 percent is rural. In 2006, access to improved drinking-water sources was 96 percent. According to data for 2009, Armenia’s GDP was US$ 8,7 billion and agriculture accounted for 18 percent. More than 98 percent of gross agricultural production comes from the private sector. (3)

    66 percent of total water withdrawal is for agricultural purposes while the shares of municipal and industrial purposes are 30 percent and 4 percent respectively in Armenia which have a total actual renewable water resource of 7.769 km3/year. Groundwater sources provide about 95 percent of the water used for drinking purposes. The largest water-using industrial enterprise is the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant which uses about 35 million m3/year. (4)

    The rivers in Armenia are tributaries of the main rivers the Aras and the Kura. About 76 percent of the Armenian territory is part of the Araks basin and 24 percent of the Kura basin. The outflow to Georgia through the Debet River is estimated at about 0.89 billion m3/year and the outflow to Azerbaijan through the Agstay River at about 0.35 billion m3/year. Both these rivers are located in the Kura basin. The total outflow to Azerbaijan through the Aras and its tributaries, Arpa, Vorotan, Vokhchi, is estimated at about 5.62 billion m3/year. The Aras River forms the border between Turkey and Armenia and further downstream, between Iran and Armenia, it flows into Azerbaijan and joins the Kura River about 150 km before its mouth at the Caspian Sea. (5)
     
    The 14 sub-basins of the Aras-Kura river basin have been grouped into five basin management areas: Akhuryan (Arpaçay), Northern, Sevan-Hrazdan, Ararat and Southern basins. About 9 500 rivers and streams with the total length of 23 000 km flow in Armenia. The Sevan and Arpi lakes are the most important lakes of Armenia who has more than 100 small lakes some of which regularly dry out in the dry season. The Hrazdan and Akhuryan rivers originate from these two lakes. Lake Sevan which is the largest lake of Armenia have great hydrological, economic and ecological importance. Since 1960s two inter-basin transfer schemes were implemented to restore the ecology of the lake and its storage capacity as a strategic water reserve which is used in energy production and irrigation. Hence, some 250 million m3 of water is diverted annually from the Arpa River to Lake Sevan by using a 48 km tunnel. By a similar project which was completed in 2004, 165 million m3 of water diverted annually from the upper Vorotan River to the Arpa River through a 22 km tunnel. The second most important lake, Arpi, became a reservoir with the construction of a dam for irrigation purposes. Most of the reservoirs were constructed during the Soviet period. In 2004, there were 83 reservoirs operating in Armenia and their total capacity was estimated at 1 399 million m3. (6)

    One of the most important institutions involved in water resources development and management in Armenia is The National Water Council (NWC). It is the highest advisory body in the water sector and chaired by the Prime Minister. It advises on water management issues, and makes recommendations on policies, legal documents, and the National Water Program. Other institutions are The Ministry of Nature Protection, The Ministry of Agriculture, The Vorogum-Jrar Closed Joint Stock Company, The Public Services Regulatory Commission, The Ministry of Territorial Administration, The Armenian State Hydrometeorological and Monitoring Service and Environmental Impact Monitoring Center, and The Hydrogeological Monitoring Center which is responsible for monitoring all groundwater bodies. (7)

    Reforms in the water sector have been initiated with the implementation of “Integrated Water Resources Management Project” in 1999–2000 which was supported by the World Bank. One of the most important steps towards reform in the water sector was the adoption of a new Water Code on 4 June 2002. The Law on “Fundamental Provisions of the National Water Policy”, which is about development of water resources and strategic use and protection of water systems, was adopted in 2005. (8)

    Most river basins are transboundary and through a number of bilateral agreements Armenia uses these international waters. Armenia has an agreement with Turkey concerning the use of the Aras and Akhuryan rivers, according to which the water of these two transboundary rivers is divided equally between the two countries. Another agreement with Turkey concerns the joint use of the dam and the reservoir of the Akhuryan River. According to an agreement between Iran and Armenia, the water of the Aras River is divided equally between them. These agreements were signed by the USSR; however Armenia is considered a successor country. There have been agreements signed between Armenia and Georgia concerning the Debet River. Besides, Armenia and Azerbaijan signed agreements concerning the use of the water of the Arpa, Vorotan, Aghstay and Tavush rivers. (9)

    In 1998, Armenia ratified the agreement with Georgia on cooperation in protection of the transboundary ecosystems. The Ministry of Nature Protection (MNP) develops and implements international environmental projects, some of which are related to water issues.

    Under the implementation of the “Ecoregional Nature Protection Programme for Southern Caucasus” which is a part of the Caucasus Initiative, launched by the German Ministry of Cooperation and Development, three Caucasus countries, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia have been covered in the programme. From 2000 to 2002 South Caucasus Water Management Project which was designed to strengthen co-operation between water-related agencies at all local, national and regional levels, and demonstrated integrated water resources management was implemented in collaboration with USAID. Between 2000 and 2006, the EU and the Technical Assistance Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS) have developed the Joint River Management Programme on Monitoring and Assessment of Water Quality on Transboundary Rivers in order to provide prevention, control and reduction of trans-boundary pollution impact. The programme covers four basins, including the Kura River Basin. Moreover, USAID supports the national project for Sustainable Water Resources Management in Armenia. (10)
     
    Between 2002 and 2007, the NATO-OECD has developed the South Caucasus River Monitoring Project. This project aims to establish the social and technical infrastructure for an international, cooperative, transboundary river water quality and quantity monitoring, data sharing and watershed management system. Countries participating in this project are Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. Moreover, the project “Reducing Transboundary Degradation” in the Kura-Aras River Basin which is implemented by the UNDP in collaboration with GEF and supported by Sweden has been realized. This project involved four of the basin countries; Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Iran, and aims to ensure the regional cooperation that will monitör quality and quantity of water throughout the Kura-Aras River Basin. (11)


    References

    (2) FAO, Irrigation in the Middle East region in figures;
    Aquastat Survey-2008, FAO Water Reports 24, Roma, 2008, p. 127

    (4) op. cit.

    (5) FAO, 2008, p.131.

    (6) op. cit.

    (7). op. cit., p.141.

    (8) op. cit.

    (9) op. cit., p.134.

    (10) op. cit.

    (11) op. cit., p.135.


    03 November -09 November 2014 (Issue 205)
    ORSAM Report No: 154
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 19
    May2013
    Transboundary Waters Within the Scope of EU Water Framework Directive
    (Tr)
    ORSAM Report No: 145
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 18
    January 2013
    Orsam Water Interviews 2012
    (Tr - Eng)
    ORSAM Report No: 144
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 17
    January 2013
    Orsam Water Interviews 2011
    (Tr - Eng)
    ORSAM Report No: 126
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 16
    July 2012
    Towards the New Water Framework Directive: Notes on Water Draft Law
    (Tr)
    ORSAM Report No: 122
     ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 15

    WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN IRAQ
    (Tr-Eng)
     
    ORSAM Report No: 116
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 14
    April 2012
    The Concept of “Benefit-Sharing”, Its Theoretical
    Background and Practical Reflections

    (Tr - Eng)
    ORSAM Report No :110
    ORSAM Water Research Programme No:13

    WATER RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT IN IRAN


    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Report No: 104
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 12

    AN EVALUATION ON THE DRAFT ARTICLES
    ON THE LAW OF TRANSBOUNDARY AQUIFERS


    (Turkish - English)
    ORSAM Rapor No: 101
    ORSAM Su Araştırmaları Programı Rapor No: 11


    EMNİYETLİ İÇME SUYU VE SANİTASYON HAKKI

    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 10

    TURKEY AND WFD HARMONIZATION: A SILENT, BUT SIGNIFICANT PROCESS


    (ENG)
    ORSAM Report No 84
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 9:

    SOMALIA’S CATASTROPHIC FAMINE: POLITICAL
    DROUGHT OR NATURAL ONE?


    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Rapor No: 78
    ORSAM Su Araştırmaları Programı Rapor No: 8

    TÜRKİYE’DE VE İSRAİL’DE YAPAY SULAK ALANLAR İLE ATIKSU ARITIMI VE ATIKSUYUN SULAMA AMAÇLI OLARAK TEKRAR KULLANIMI


    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Report No 63
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 7:

    THE INVISIBLE STRATEGIC RESOURCE: TRANSBOUNDARY GROUND WATERS


    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Report No 60
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 6:

    COOPERATION AND CONFLICT ON THE MEKONG RIVER WATERS


    (Turkish-ENG)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 5 :

    TURKEY-SYRIA RELATIONS: ASİ (ORONTES) FRIENDSHIP DAM AS AN EXAMPLE OF COOPERATION IN TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS


    (Turkish)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 4 :

    THE OBLIGATION OF “INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION” IN MERİÇ (MARITZA-EVROS) BASIN WATER MANAGEMENT


    (Turkish)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report : 3

    HYDROPOLITICAL HISTORY OF NILE RIVER BASIN AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    (Turkish)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report : 2

    CLIMATE CHANGE FROM A SECURITY PERSPECTIVE AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE MIDDLE EAST

    ( Turkish)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report 1:

    EU’S WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION IN TURKEY: THE DRAFT NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

    ( ENG )

    Syria
    Iraq
    Georgia
    Bulgaria
    Iran
    Armenia
    Greece
    Azerbaijan
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