English
  • Is Turkey Rich in Water?
  • Management of Water Resources in Turkey
  • Water as a Human Right
  • Turkey's Transboundary Waters Policy
  • Water in Turkey-EU Relations
  • * Conceptions

    * Doctrines

    * Conventions

    ORSAM Water Research Programme made an interview with ICID Vice President Hüseyin Gündoğdu on ICID, its importance.
    ORSAM Water Research Programme made an interview with Anna Bachmann, who is a program manager in Nature Iraq, about the studies of Nature Iraq and water issue in Iraq.
    During the 6th World Water Forum held in Marseille, ORSAM Water Research Program specialist Dr. Tuğba Evrim Maden made an interview with Assist. Prof. Dr. Aysun Uyar..
    Gökçekuş elaborated onTRNC’s water resources and the process of “TRNC Drinking Water Supply Project” which is an important project as a solution for TRNC's drinking water problem.
    “What we see is that we need to develop a much better understanding of the role of water in energy production so that water will not be a constrained to energy production” said Jakob Granit.
    Demirer said that Turkey's brackish water potential might be an alternative resource.
    Prof. Dr. Cumali Kınacı, Director General of Water Management of the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs stated that they aim at establishing a national policy by trying to gather many institutions and organizations in a more productive way.
    Dr. Betül Al-Mossavi indicated that the federal government structure could lead to new problems in terms of the management of water resources in Iraq in the future.
    Problems of water in all countries (such as Turkey) are almost similar. Water shortage, increasing demand for drinking and irrigation water, and the fact that many regions are going through problems related to drinking water can be counted as some of the water problems.
    UNDP Global Programme Manager Assoc. Prof. Boğaçhan Benli, made assessments about the the efficient usage of water.
    Dr. Gülay Yaşın, GIZ Turkey Director indicated that wetlands should be preserved in a better way in order to protect the ecosystem and water resources, in the fight against climate change.
    Arzu Özyol, CEO at HYDRA, elaborated on the relation between “water and development”, and the ongoing works, which have been carried out in axis of women all around the world and in Turkey.
    Prof. Dr. H. Gonca Coşkun from ITU Faculty of Civil Engineering, Geomatics Engineering Department answered the questions of ORSAM Water Research Programme.
    Prof. Ayşegül Tanık told about the development of the integrated water resources management in Turkey, its perception, and its development with the EU Water Framework Directive.
    ORSAM Water Research Program carried out an interview with United Nations Joint Program Director Atila Uras and United Nations Joint Program Regional Project Coordinator Alper Acar.
    Akif Özkaldı, Deputy Director General of State Hydraulic Works (DSİ), mentioned that the 2nd İstanbul International Water Forum would consolidate the positive image about Turkey.
    Hydropolitics specialist Dursun Yıldız, underlined the fact that Turkey never used her transboundary waters for peaceful and cooperative objectives.
    DSI Coordinator Hamza Özgüler: "Istanbul Water Forum is one of the most significant formations on the domain of water in Turkey and the region."
    Prof. Dr. Şahinöz: “The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) can supply enough food to the whole Middle East region, Also the region enriches the farmers of the GAP”



    Azerbaijan

    Surface Area
    8 660 000 ha
    Cultivated Area
    2 064 700 ha
    Cultivated Area %
    23.8
    Population
    8 781 000
    Average Annual Precipitation
    447 mm/year
    Average Annual Volume of Precipitation
    38.71 billion m3/year
    Renewable Surface Water
    32.52 billion m3/year
    Renewable Groundwater
    6.51 billion m3/year
    Total Renewable Water (natural)
    39.03 billion m3/year
    Total Renewable Water (actual)
    39.03 billion m3/year

     
    Azerbaijan, with a total area of 86 600 km2, is located on the southeastern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains. About 43 percent of the area of Azerbaijan is situated more than 1 000 m above sea level. The climate in Azerbaijan is continental. Humid tropical weather prevails in the coastal zone near the Caspian Sea. According to data for 2005, the total population is 8.4 million of which 50 percent is rural. In 2009, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was US$ 44 billion. The share of agriculture in GDP dropped from 39 percent in 1990 to 6 percent in 2007, due to extensive industrial development from 1995 to 2004. (1)

    The amount of total renewable water is 39.03 billion m3 in Azerbaijan where the estimated average precipitation is 447 mm/year. Azerbaijan has four major river basins, two of which are international. The basin of the Kura and Aras Rivers is the largest basin in the country. Both rivers rise in the northeast Turkey. Kura River with the length of 1 515 km of which 900 km is located within Azerbaijan flows into Georgia and crosses the border to Azerbaijan in the northwest. The total annual inflow from Georgia is estimated at 11.91 billion m3. The Aras River forms the border between Turkey and Armenia, Turkey and Azerbaijan, Iran and Azerbaijan, Iran and Armenia, Iran and Azerbaijan before flowing into the eastern part of Azerbaijan and about 100 km downstream of the border it joins the Kura River and flow southeast towards the Caspian Sea. The total inflow of the main branch of the Araks River and its tributaries from Armenia and Iran is estimated at 13.47 billion m3/year. (2)

    The Samur River Basin is located in the northeast of the country. The Samur River, with 2.36 billion m3 estimated annual discharge, rises in the Russian Federation and flows into Caspian Sea. One of the last two basins is the Caspian Sea coastal river basins in the Lankaran region in the southeast, south of the Kura River Basin. Finally, the other basin is the Caspian Sea coastal river basins in the northeast, between the Samur and Kura River Basins. (3) 

    The total reservoir capacity of dams is around 21.54 billion m3 in Azerbaijan. In 2005, the total wastewater production was 659 million m3. In the same year, water withdrawal was estimated at 12.21 km3, of which 76.4 percent for agricultural purposes, 4.2 percent for municipal uses and 19.3 percent for industrial processes. (4)

    The main institutions involved in water resources are all state institutions in Azerbaijan. The Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, which has overall responsibility for the conservation of water resources and the prevention of pollution, issues wastewater discharge permits. The Committee on Ecology and Nature Use is in charge of monitoring salinization and water pollution. The State Committee on Amelioration and Water Management, which is responsible for monitoring water use and for issuing permits for surface water, levies charges for water use. Centre for Epidemiology and Hygiene, which is under the Ministry of Health, is responsible for monitoring drinking water quality. The water sector is regulated by the Water Code (1997), the Law on Water Supply and Wastewater (1999), the Law on Amelioration and Irrigation (1996) and the Law on Environmental Protection (1999). (5)

    In regard to transboundary water resources, Azerbaijan signed agreements with Iran on the Aras River, with Georgia on Gandar Lake and with the Russian Federation on the Samur River. No agreement exists regarding the Kura River which is the most important transboundary river in the region. In 1997 the Government of Georgia ratified an agreement with Azerbaijan concerning environmental protection, providing for cooperation in the creation of specifically protected areas within transboundary ecosystems. (6)
     
    Under the implementation of the “Ecoregional Nature Protection Programme for Southern Caucasus” which is a part of the Caucasus Initiative, launched by the German Ministry of Cooperation and Development, three Caucasus countries, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia have been covered in the programme. From 2000 to 2002 South Caucasus Water Management Project which was designed to strengthen co-operation between water-related agencies at all local, national and regional levels, and demonstrated integrated water resources management was implemented in collaboration with USAID. Between 2000 and 2006, the EU and the Technical Assistance Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS) have developed the Joint River Management Programme on Monitoring and Assessment of Water Quality on Transboundary Rivers in order to provide prevention, control and reduction of trans-boundary pollution impact. The programme covers the Kura River Basin. (7)
     
    From 2002 to 2007, the NATO-OECD has developed the South Caucasus River Monitoring Project which aims to monitor and control water quality and quantity of transboundary rivers in the region covering Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. Supported by Sweden, the project “Reducing Transboundary Degradation” in the Kura-Aras River Basin has been realized by the UNDP in collaboration with GEF. This project covers Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Iran, and aims to ensure the regional cooperation that will monitör quality and quantity of water throughout the Kura-Aras River Basin. (8)


    References

    (1) FAO, Irrigation in the Middle East region in figures; Aquastat Survey-2008, FAO Water Reports 24, Rome, 2008, p.147.

    (2) http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/factsheets/
    aquastat_fact_sheet_aze_en.pdf.

    (3) op. cit., p.150.

    (4) op. cit., p.155.

    (5) op. cit.

    (6) op. cit., p.151.

    (7) op. cit., p.152.

    (8) op. cit., p.152.
     

     



    14 July -20 April 2014 (Issue 189)
    ORSAM Report No: 154
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 19
    May2013
    Transboundary Waters Within the Scope of EU Water Framework Directive
    (Tr)
    ORSAM Report No: 145
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 18
    January 2013
    Orsam Water Interviews 2012
    (Tr - Eng)
    ORSAM Report No: 144
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 17
    January 2013
    Orsam Water Interviews 2011
    (Tr - Eng)
    ORSAM Report No: 126
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 16
    July 2012
    Towards the New Water Framework Directive: Notes on Water Draft Law
    (Tr)
    ORSAM Report No: 122
     ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 15

    WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN IRAQ
    (Tr-Eng)
     
    ORSAM Report No: 116
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 14
    April 2012
    The Concept of “Benefit-Sharing”, Its Theoretical
    Background and Practical Reflections

    (Tr - Eng)
    ORSAM Report No :110
    ORSAM Water Research Programme No:13

    WATER RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT IN IRAN


    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Report No: 104
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No: 12

    AN EVALUATION ON THE DRAFT ARTICLES
    ON THE LAW OF TRANSBOUNDARY AQUIFERS


    (Turkish - English)
    ORSAM Rapor No: 101
    ORSAM Su Araştırmaları Programı Rapor No: 11


    EMNİYETLİ İÇME SUYU VE SANİTASYON HAKKI

    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 10

    TURKEY AND WFD HARMONIZATION: A SILENT, BUT SIGNIFICANT PROCESS


    (ENG)
    ORSAM Report No 84
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 9:

    SOMALIA’S CATASTROPHIC FAMINE: POLITICAL
    DROUGHT OR NATURAL ONE?


    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Rapor No: 78
    ORSAM Su Araştırmaları Programı Rapor No: 8

    TÜRKİYE’DE VE İSRAİL’DE YAPAY SULAK ALANLAR İLE ATIKSU ARITIMI VE ATIKSUYUN SULAMA AMAÇLI OLARAK TEKRAR KULLANIMI


    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Report No 63
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 7:

    THE INVISIBLE STRATEGIC RESOURCE: TRANSBOUNDARY GROUND WATERS


    (Turkish)
    ORSAM Report No 60
    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 6:

    COOPERATION AND CONFLICT ON THE MEKONG RIVER WATERS


    (Turkish-ENG)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 5 :

    TURKEY-SYRIA RELATIONS: ASİ (ORONTES) FRIENDSHIP DAM AS AN EXAMPLE OF COOPERATION IN TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS


    (Turkish)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report No 4 :

    THE OBLIGATION OF “INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION” IN MERİÇ (MARITZA-EVROS) BASIN WATER MANAGEMENT


    (Turkish)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report : 3

    HYDROPOLITICAL HISTORY OF NILE RIVER BASIN AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    (Turkish)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report : 2

    CLIMATE CHANGE FROM A SECURITY PERSPECTIVE AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE MIDDLE EAST

    ( Turkish)

    ORSAM Water Research Programme Report 1:

    EU’S WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION IN TURKEY: THE DRAFT NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

    ( ENG )

    Syria
    Iraq
    Georgia
    Bulgaria
    Iran
    Armenia
    Greece
    Azerbaijan
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